California, Yosemite National Park, Matthes Crest
California, Yosemite National Park, Matthes Crest
It was a beautiful morning on Memorial Day weekend. We had the best spot to camp for the Lemon Reservoir crag. One party already had passed our camp, head- ing into the canyon to the routes. Our group was just finishing scarfing down our bacon and eggs when we heard a female cry of sheer pain. We immediately took off in a dead sprint to the bottom of the routes.
Upon getting to the routes, we could see a girl (mid-20s) dangling from her hair in her ATC (she was rappelling a route). I sprinted back to camp to grab another rope and my harness. When I got to the top of the cliff, her partner had already rigged a rappel and lowered to assist. He put a prusik above her ATC and attached a sling. The woman was able to stand in the sling, releasing her hair from the ATC. Her helmet was dangling from her harness the whole time. When we returned to our camp, we could think of nothing more than the fact that if the helmet had been worn the hair could have been contained to the back of the head and out of the way. This may not be a brain buster, but helmets matter! (Source: Dillon Parker.)
While a helmet may have helped keep the hair away from the device in this case, it does not ensure the hair is contained, especially for climbers with long hair. Keeping hair secured in a braid or bun, at the back of the head, is the best way to reduce the risk of it being pulled into the device by the rope while belaying or rappelling. Fortunately for this woman, the top of the route was accessible by foot and several climbers at the crag were proficient in rescue techniques. (Source: The Editors.)
California, Yosemite Valley, Serenity Crack
On May 7, Brian Ellis (31) and Japhy Dhungana (25), his frequent climbing partner of several years, climbed Serenity Crack (three pitches, 5. lOd) and Sons of Yesterday (five pitches, 5.10a), which starts at the top of Serenity. They began rappelling the routes using the Reepschnur method shown in the illustration, page 25. The climbing rope is passed through one or more rappel rings and knotted to a thin “retrieval” cord. The rappeller descends the single rope, supported by the knot jammed against the rings, while leaving the cord unloaded. In case the knot slips through the rings, a figure-of-eight loop is tied in the cord just below the rings and clipped to the rope on the rappeller’s side of the rings with a locking carabiner, thus securing the system. After the rappel, the rope is retrieved by pulling the cord. Advantages of this method include the ability to use single-rope descent devices and the reduced weight of the second rope for full-length rappels.
Ellis used the Reepschnur method because he favored rappelling with his Trango Cinch, an auto-locking, single-rope belay device. He typically joined the rope and cord with a flat overhand bend—in which the rope ends point in the same direction—backed up by a secondary overhand. (Again, see illustration.) Usually Ellis would go first, and then Dhungana would rappel with both the rope and the cord rigged through his ATC. Since he was no longer dependent on the security of the knot-jam, Dhungana would first disconnect the carabiner and untie the figure-of-eight loop to minimize the risk of the rope hanging up when they retrieved it. On this they were using a 10.2-mm rope and a 6-mm cord.
At the top of pitch 3 of Serenity Crack, Ellis rigged the next rappel through two rappel rings while Dhungana organized the 6-mm cord and chatted with a climber leading the pitch below. Dhungana checked Ellis’s rigging and then Ellis rappelled, carrying a bundle of the cord in his hand to keep it from tangling. After 20-30 feet, he stopped to photograph the climber as he led the crux section. He stayed there for about ten minutes, moved left and right for different photo angles, and then resumed his descent. Almost immediately he began to fall. Dhungana described it in an Internet post, “This is when I heard a pop and the sound of the rope whizzing. I tried to grab the [cord] with my bare hands and held on tightly as long as I could. My instinct even tried to wrap it around my waist for an emergency brake, but the [cord] just burned through my hand.” The cord tangled and then jammed at the ring and the impact broke the cord. Ellis fell 300–400 feet to the ground. Dhungana called 911 and a medical team arrived within nine minutes but Ellis died at the scene.
It turned out that both overhand knots had slipped through the rappel rings. The figure-of-eight and carabiner backup should have prevented farther slippage, but Ellis had completely overlooked rigging the backup, so there was no figure-of-eight or carabiner in the system. (See illustration facing page.) When Ellis fell there was probably nothing Dhungana could have done to stop him. In Dhungana’s post on the Internet he wrote, “When Brian set up this system and tied the knots (I was coiling the ropes in the meantime preparing for tossing), he forgot to tie the backup knot. When I checked the system for him, I too, committed the same mistake and only observed the main knot. [Brian] checked it a THIRD time, and made the same oversight.
“The only explanation I have for this oversight is distraction and complacency. Brian MAY not have been 100% focused on the task (there were several things going on: party coming behind us and he was excited to take photos of the leader below; a few moments earlier on the last pitch, we were rudely and inconsiderately passed up by a speeding simul-climbing party, and this bothered both of us considerably). I am equally guilty of the same distraction and complacency for not having noticed the absence of the backup.
“During every [single-rope] rappel that Brian and I have done together with this system, we have tied the backup knot. The principle overhand knot had NEVER passed through the rings before. However, the one time [the backup figure-of-eight] was forgotten, sadly, was when it was most critical.”
When examined after the accident, the primary overhand bend was compressed so much that it passed through the rings with room to spare. Much of the compression was probably due to the subsequent impact of the cord jamming, but Ellis’s body weight plus his movements as he took pictures was enough to pull both knots through the rings, even with several strands of cord and webbing from the anchor competing for space. (The illustrations show the actual number of anchor strands, to scale.) These rings were the rolled aluminum type with 1½-inch interior diameter (ID). The ID on some welded stainless steel rings common on modern fixed anchors is smaller, but only by ? inch—hardly enough insurance for a compressible/ deformable material like a single knotted rope.
Several variations of the Reepschnur exist, with different characteristics and some with bigger knots, e.g., tying the figure-of-eight on a bight in the end of the rope rather than in the cord. If you’re considering the Reepschnur, evaluate all the options and remember that you won’t always find suitable anchor hardware in the mountains. If the second rappeller will use a two-rope descent device—which poses its own risks due to different strand sizes and friction— consider simply tying the single rope to the anchor for the first rappeller.
You might think it unlikely that two intelligent and experienced climbers working together could make the fatal mistakes described here. But ANAM is full of other cases, so before you put down this booklet and turn your attention elsewhere, remember that you have no way to distinguish Ellis or Dhungana from yourself until you retire from climbing and can say that it didn’t happen to you. (Source: John Dill, NPS Ranger. Illustrations by Rick Weber. Special thanks to Japhy Dhungana for quickly posting his report to the climbing community.)
Besides practicing endlessly there is periodization, competition planning, managing recovery and rest, technical considerations, and of course, diet. When a low performance diet meets a high performance athlete results inevitably plummet.
There is nothing worse than putting in the effort, sacrificing all the hours, and then sputtering along because you are running on low grade fuel. The reality is that trying to outwork a crappy diet means you have to work harder to improve (and why would anyone wanna do that?).
Here are 15 fast and proven tips from some of the top dietitians who work specifically with athletes to get your nutrition game strong.
For athletes the focus is almost always on carbs and protein. One provides the fuel, and the other provides the restorative power to heal our muscles and keep us training at a high level.
Which means that forgetting about our veggies can happen to even the most attuned athlete.
“We often forget that our body can’t properly use protein and carbohydrates without the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) found in veggies,” says Cameron Noerr, a sports nutritionist who also formulates supplements for AthletEssence.
Protein and carbs are important, but so are the mineral and vitamins the facilitate their delivery and help to process them.
“You can do this by eating vegetables at every major meal, and try layering your vegetables. Have two or three different veggies at a time,” adds Noerr.
Want an easy and proven way to reduce soreness? Accelerate your recovery efforts between sessions in the gym by crushing some blueberries.
“Research has shown that when athletes consume berries around their workout they have better inflammation and immune responses to the workout compared to not eating the berries (this means better recovery and less chance that illness will put us out of training for a period of time), adds Noerr.
How much of em should you be stuffing in your face in order to see some of this good old recovery action take place?
“Eat 1-2 cups of berries a day to take advantage of these benefits.”
As an athlete you already know the importance of crushing a fair amount of protein in order to keep your muscles recovering and prepared for battle.
“Use 20-30g of a lean protein as the anchor for each of your meals,” suggests Nate Dunn, M.S., USAC Level 1 and Certified Sports Nutritionist of Data Driven Athlete.
The lists of benefits of getting your protein in are substantial and are a bedrock part of the high performance athlete’s diet.
“Adequate protein intake maintains muscle, improves recovery, might improve cognition and sleep, and may keep you from getting sick,” adds Dunn.
The simplest way to make better food choices is by cleaning up your kitchen. Environment has been shown to be exceptionally powerful both in habit formation and in influencing our food choices, so why tempt yourself unnecessarily?
This could mean throwing out the crap food in your cupboards instead of having to drain yourself of willpower every time you open them.
It could also mean leaving out more of the foods you should be eating but currently aren’t (what you see is what you eat–science!).
“Set yourself up to not fail,” advises Jason Martuscello.
See Also: 12 Nutrition Tips for College Athletes
“Where you live largely determines what you eat. More than 75% of food you eat is within 3 miles of your home,” he adds. “Your eating habits are direct reflection of your 3 closest friends. Hang around with high-performing eaters.”
If you’ve hung around these parts you know that sleep is a crazy powerful weapon in your training arsenal. Not only do you recover faster for the next bout of workouts, but adequate sleep also means you are not a crabby jerk-face. (See: 15 Sleep Strategies for High Performance Athletes.)
“The biggest missed anabolic opportunity athletes miss is while sleeping,” notes Martuscello.
Instead of using your sleepy time for solely catching up on your Z’s, you can help charge the recovery process overnight by consuming some pre-bed, slow digesting protein.
“These protein sources before bed will turn what is an otherwise catabolic 8 hours into productive recovery, repair and growth. If you want to take it to the next level, plan a meal in the middle of the night.”
Creatine has long been touted and recognized as one of the safest and most effective supplements on the market.
“Even the ladies should be supplementing with it,” says Cara Axelrod RD, LD/N, CISSN.
“Creatine is found naturally in the human body and is important for the transport of energy within cells,” she adds. If you want to train a little bit harder, for a little bit longer and with less recovery time, than creatine is a no-brainer.
So how much should you be taking for peak effectiveness?
“Three to five grams of creatine monohydrate daily is best; take it before or after training,” adds Axelrod.
Michelle Adams, a strength coach, certified sports nutritionist and former figure competitor notes that it is important that athletes understand that they are eating for performance, and not for weight loss.
This means avoiding the low carb, high fat diets that are going around right now.
“Carbohydrates won’t kill you, but they can and will improve your performance –especially if your sport is high intensity or if it requires maximal or near max efforts,” says Adams.
Avoiding carbs can have the decimating effect of leaving you struggling to maintain peak performance in the gym, on the field, and in the pool.
“Consuming carbohydrates in and around your training will keep you performing at your best. Throw in some carbs after training to help boost your immune system and speed your recovery so you’ll be prepared for your next session,” she notes.
As a high performance athlete you understand that between workouts is a race to reduce inflammation so that you can come back at peak strength to dominate the next workout.
“Every time we exercise we induce physiological stress that causes inflammation. The quicker the inflammation goes down, the quicker our recovery time,” says Emily Parsons, a sports nutritionist who works out of Orlando’s Spectrum Sports Performance Center.
Emily’s favorite breakfast to battle inflammatories? This simple little bad boy:
Southwest Scramble: 2 eggs, 1/4 tsp turmeric, 1/2 cup chorizo, 2 tbs salsa, 1/2 avocado
If you are ready to take your nutrition to the next level, than start paying more attention to how you combo-up your meals so that you can maximize how you are performing and how you are sleeping.
“Did you know that eating certain foods can optimize your blood sugar and improve athletic performance markers?” rhetorically asks Bob Seebohar, CSCS, sports nutritionist, and holder of more titles than I can literally fit into this post.
(Here just a few: Sports dietitian for the US Olympic committee, former Director of Sports Nutrition for the University of Florida, dietitian on the 2008 US Olympic team, personal sports dietitian for the Olympic Triathlon team, among a host of others).
“Specifically, combining sources of protein, fat and fiber at almost every feeding will optimize blood sugar. This allows the body to use fat as energy and preserve valuable carbohydrate stores,” adds Seebohar, who is also the owner/founder of eNRG Performance.
But the benefits don’t stop there, as optimizing your blood sugar can also help you sleep better, which in turn further helps increase recovery during hard bouts of training and competition.
“The next time you eat, think protein + fat + fiber. Aim for good sources of protein such as eggs, beef or chicken. Fat is usually found in protein rich foods but can also be added through foods like avocados and olives and the use of coconut and olive oil. Fiber can be any vegetable, fruit or whole grain,” says Seebohar.
Athletes don’t eat to look good necessarily, but rather, they eat so that they can kick a metric ton of butt-butt when they step out to train or compete.
For many young athletes who fall into the social media compare-a-thon they can lose touch with what they are trying to accomplish when they sit down to eat and instead start thinking about eating to lose weight.
“Never fall into the trap of starving yourself to lose weight,” says Josh Mathe, CSCS, CISSN, PES, author and ultra-endurance athlete.
This means that you need to view your food choices as tactical decisions, and not as something where you want to be cutting corners on in order to achieve an aesthetic look.
“As an athlete you are asking your body to perform and in order to do so, your furnace needs fuel. If you don’t consume enough calories to maintain basic body functions and hit the training hard, you won’t progress as an athlete,” he adds.
Because of the very real risks of hyper-tension or super processed diets the general population is taught to avoid foods that are high in salt content.
The dietary demands of high performance athletes–particularly those in warmer climates and for those who emerge from the gym looking like they went for a dip–means they need to be mindful of their sodium and electrolyte intake.
The reason being? (It’s a good one…)
To help avoid cramps and decreases in performance.
You can combat this in a few different ways, my sweaty-sweaty little friend:
“Electrolytes, such as magnesium and potassium, are abundant in green leafy vegetables and fruits,” notes personal trainer and yoga instructor Carrie Hogan, who is also a graduate of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.
Athletes (should) already know the importance of staying hydrated, but “adding a pinch of unrefined sea salt to each 1L of water can help prevent excess loss of salts from sweating,” notes Hogan.
You can also take the salt battle to the dinner table.
“Seasoning your meals is also a simple go-to! If you suffer from cramps, adding more unrefined sea salt to your diet can be a delicious, quick fix.”
We live in a fast pace world. We have a limited amount of time each day to work, play, and train our butts off.
As a result, many of us power through our meals as though they owe us money, leaving us feeling not so hot in the digestive parts.
“How you are eating is just as important as what you are eating,” says Keri Gaul, CISSN and owner of The Ripple Effect LLC. “Not properly digesting food and supplements may prevent absorption of key nutrients and leave you with gas, bloating, cramps or other more serious digestive issues over time.”
Athletes tend to lean towards eating ravenously; 2-3 hour-long workouts tend to create this state, so it’s understandable that they’ll dive face first into that massive bowl of pasta after a massive workout.
Take a breath. And chew, advises Gaul.
“Chew each bite 25-50x’s so it mixes with your saliva and kick-starts your digestive process. Consider a quality digestive enzyme and probiotic to help maintain healthy digestion,” she adds.
High performance athletes understand that periodization and preparation is everything when it comes to training. This kind of planning and evaluation should extend to the way you are fueling yourself.
Do this by having your meals ready to rock before you stumble in the door after a day of crushing workouts.
See Also: The Ridiculous Power of Meal Prep
Planning and prepping your meals ahead of time insures that you are making better choices. After a long day of up to 6 hours in the pool and the gym the last thing I wanted to do was prepare a meal. And so what happened? The convenience of the less healthy options almost always won out.
Have the humility and self-awareness to understand that–to quote Snickers–you aren’t yourself when you are hungry.
Combine that hunger with fatigue and you, my high performing friend, are not to be trusted in the fridge.
Have your dinners planned out and prepped ahead of time so that the convenient option becomes the healthy option.
On the morning of game day is not the time to start playing around with your nutrition. The last thing you need when you are stepping out onto the court, onto the field or behind the blocks and having your tummy do a double-pike somersault.
Of course, there are always going to be the games and competitions where you are away from the comfortable confines of your refrigerator. Some simple planning can ward this off, and keep you and your tummy game ready.
The easiest way to really stay on top of your nutrition is to keep a food journal.
Yes, it might sound tedious, or like “homework”, and it is just one more thing to remember to do in a long list, but it will give you a very accurate overview of how you are actually eating, while also helping you connect the dots between periods in your training where you feel particularly lethargic or weak.
Awesome run through the Jug with some great people during the AZ Canyon Rendezvous! Good flow, nice temps, and an overall great time!
Canyoneering Hydrology: The study of water movement and its behavior relating to the topography, which allows us to properly assess dangerous water hazards that can exist in Canyoneering.
The most common terms you will hear are swift water, whitewater or class 3 canyons. These types of canyons are located all around the world and are considerably different from dry canyons which require a separate skill set to navigate the hazards.
Swift water canyons can be extremely dangerous and as with all aspects of Canyoneering, instruction, practice and training cannot be substituted for this information.
Water behaves differently according to the volume, shape of the river bottom and types of obstructions which can then effect and produce different movements. Canyoneering Hydrology needs to be learnt to reduce the risk of injury, mishap or even death.
Three points that cover moving water especially in a Canyoneering environment are:
Swift moving water exerts a force on any object it encounters, whether it is a rock, bridge or person in the water. This force is dependent upon the speed of the water. As the speed of the current increases, so does the power.
Moving water will always exert a continuous force on an object or person. It never stops, unlike an ocean wave which has a cycle of breaking and receding.
Water may sometimes look as if it is moving randomly, but to the trained person it is moving in an orderly and predictable way. Surface features can be “read” and used to predict what is happening under the water.
The nature of rivers in a canyon are variable and are determined by five main factors. Understanding how moving water behaves, you can use the canyon river to ascertain a level of risk management and avoid unnecessary or unacceptable levels of danger.
Topography is generally consistent over time. Increased flow, as during a flood or high rainfall season can make permanent changes to the streambed by displacing rocks and boulders, by deposition of dirt, sand or stones or by creating new channels for flowing water.
The gradient of a river is the rate at which it loses elevation along its course. This loss determines the river’s slope, and to a large extent its rate of flow. Shallow gradients produce gentle, slow rivers while steep gradients are associated with more forceful flows.
Constrictions can form a water hazard where the river’s flow is forced into a narrower channel. This pressure causes the water to flow more rapidly and to react differently to the river bed.
A boulder or ledge in the middle of a river or near the side can obstruct the flow of the river, and can also create a “pillow”, when water flows backwards upstream of the obstruction, or a “pour over” (over the boulder), and “hydraulics” or “holes” where the river flows back on itself—perhaps back under the drop,often with fearful results for those caught in its grasp.
Measuring water flow is an important aspect for canyoners. A marked increase or decrease in flow can create a hazard or make safe passage through previously navigated rapids more difficult or impossible. Flow rate is measured in either Cubic Meters per Second (m³/s) or Cubic Feet per Second (cfs)
Ice Cube Canyon is located in the Red Rock area of Nevada and is a excellent trip through an outstanding canyon. A shuttle is set up as shown on the map/gps track or as always you could simply hike in from the exit as needed. Once at the upper trail/parking location, you will find a well defined trail that will quickly have you gaining most of the days elevation and shortly after have you standing at the technical drop in point. Throughout the approach you will have great views overlooking the red rock scenery and the strip off in the distance. Once geared up at the technical section, be prepared for a day of up to nearly 2 dozen rappels depending on your groups approach. Plenty of webbing are rings are recommended to refresh any drops as needed. Shortly after the first few rappels, a great section of narrows are encountered that get you warmed for the many drops to come. A few drops throughout the canyon have been know to stick ropes in the past and from our view these were fairly obvious when encountered. A quick observation, a few well place items, a well laid out rope, was rewarded with a smooth pull and made light work of any concern. Soon after this first section of narrows, the canyon opens up to a great spot to relax and enjoy lunch before pressing on. Working down canyon towards the next section of narrows is quite wide and no raps are encountered for a bit. Eventually this level ground cliffs out as the canyon once again begins to tighten up. Moving forward, the canyon and its remaining drops will have your group throwing rope consistently for the rest of the day. In addition to the 200' rope required for the larger drops, our group also brought along several 100' ropes to keep pushing and speed things up in an effort to avoid the bottle neck of people waiting to get on rope at each station. Lots of great scenery are encountered throughout the canyon and after many rappels and short swims you will soon find yourself staring down the last drop of around 190' with a view of the vehicle in the distance. Make your way down to the open rocky section below and remove gear. From here it is a short rock hop down the remaining canyon to the wash, where soon a trail leading out can be found on the left. Once on trail, it is smooth sailing back to the vehicle where you can unpack, get your second vehicle, and make your way out of the park.
The diagnosis of hypothermia is usually apparent based on a person's physical signs and the conditions in which the person with hypothermia became ill or was found. Blood tests also can help confirm hypothermia and its severity.
A diagnosis may not be readily apparent, however, if the symptoms are mild, as when an older person who is indoors has symptoms of confusion, lack of coordination and speech problems.
Seek immediate medical attention for anyone who appears to have hypothermia. Until medical help is available, follow these first-aid guidelines for hypothermia.
Use warm, dry compresses. Use a first-aid warm compress (a plastic fluid-filled bag that warms up when squeezed) or a makeshift compress of warm water in a plastic bottle or a dryer-warmed towel. Apply a compress only to the neck, chest wall or groin.
Don't apply a warm compress to the arms or legs. Heat applied to the arms and legs forces cold blood back toward the heart, lungs and brain, causing the core body temperature to drop. This can be fatal.
Depending on the severity of hypothermia, emergency medical care for hypothermia may include one of the following interventions to raise the body temperature:
𝐑𝐀𝐏𝐏𝐄𝐋 𝐄𝐑𝐑𝐎𝐑 | 𝐈𝐧𝐚𝐝𝐞𝐪𝐮𝐚𝐭𝐞 𝐀𝐧𝐜𝐡𝐨𝐫 𝐊𝐧𝐨𝐭
AAC - Accidents in North America Climbing 2017
In early January, two Colorado ice climbers began their third first ascent of the day in the Dark Canyon, 25 miles south of Redstone in the Raggeds Wilderness. Duane Raleigh (age 56, with 43 years of experience) was leading the first pitch of the WI3+ M4 route. Due to thin ice, the only protection he placed on the 230-foot pitch was a stubby screw at approximately 75 feet. Raleigh reached the end of the rope without finding an anchor, so he asked his partner (40 years of experience) to take him off belay, so he could continue climbing and searching for an anchor.
Raleigh spotted a precarious stack of granite that he thought might be secure enough to sling for a rappel anchor. He tested the pile by hitting it with a tool and then pulling on it. Although apprehensive about the anchor’s stability, he had no better option, so he wrapped a 10-foot 6mm cord around the rocks and tied the ends together with a flat figure-8 knot, visually checking and tugging the knot to test it. He then clipped his rope to the cord with a carabiner, planning to downclimb most of the route to minimize weighting the anchor.
Due to the steepness of the first 10 feet of this descent, Raleigh leaned back and weighted the rope. He ended up in a free fall and landed 15 feet below, upside down, in a small
patch of soft snow in a dihedral. He was uninjured except for two crampon punctures in his thigh. Raleigh climbed back up, expecting that the anchor rocks had failed. Instead, he found an untied 6mm cord. He retied the cord with a retraced figure-8 bend (Flemish bend) and successfully downclimbed and lowered to the good screw he’d placed at 75 feet. He pulled the rope and then lowered to the ground from the screw.
(Sources: Rock and Ice magazine and Duane Raleigh.)
Although not verifiable by the climber, it is possible that the flat figure-8 may have capsized under load, flipping and rolling down the cord until the knot reached the ends of the cord and untied. Both the flat figure-8 and the flat overhand knot have been used to join two rappel ropes, and both can capsize under heavy loads. However, a well-tied flat overhand is much less likely to do so and is strongly recommended over the flat figure-8, which accounts for most reported failures of this
general category of rappel knot.
When tying the flat overhand to join two rappel ropes, always tie a well-dressed knot and leave long tails (15 to 18 inches). Individually tighten all four strands of rope entering the knot. If using ropes of different diameters, age, or condition, or icy or wet ropes, consider tying a second overhand immediately adjacent to the first as a backup, though this will increase the bulk of the knot. Or, if there are no concerns about the knot snagging when the rappel ropes are pulled, consider the double fisherman’s knot or Flemish bend, which are very reliable, albeit more difficult to untie after loading.
Do not use the flat overhand to join ropes permanently (e.g., tying a cordelette or tying a rope around a tree for an anchor). The double fisherman’s knot is preferred for these purposes. Also, do not use the flat overhand for tying slings or webbing. Use a water knot for slings that may be retied and a double fisherman’s for permanent knots. Again, dress all knots carefully and tighten every strand.
(Sources: Rock and Ice magazine and the Editors.)
Solid, Redundant, Equalized, No Extension....Great for learning to build anchors on bolts with only one kind of material
Solid, Efficient, Redundant, Equalized, No Extension....Great for learning to build SRENE anchors when there are lots of options in the rigging materials
Equalized, Redundant, No Extension, Solid, Timely.... Same as SERENE
Equalized, Angles, Redundant, No Extension,Solid, Timely....Ideal for anchors where the components might be farther apart
No Extension, Redundant, Distributes Load, Solid, Simple....Same as SRENE, plus great for understanding how load distribution can be manipulated
Limit Extension, Angles, Direction, Solid, Timely, Equalized, Redundant Same as SERENE
What Are Heat-Related Illnesses?
Prolonged or intense exposure to hot temperatures can cause heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion, heat cramps, and heat stroke (also known as sun stroke). As your body works to cool itself under extreme or prolonged heat, blood rushes to the surface of your skin. As a result, less blood reaches your brain, muscles, and other organs. This can interfere with both your physical strength and your mental capacity, leading, in some cases, to serious danger.
By reducing excessive exposure to high temperatures and taking other precautionary steps, most heat-related illnesses can be avoided. Those who work in hot or humid environments — such as manufacturing plants, bakeries, or construction sites during summer months — are most at risk. However, even long, hot afternoons at the beach can pose problems if warning signs are ignored.
With prompt treatment, most people recover completely from heat-related illness. However, heat stroke can be deadly if not properly managed.
What Causes Heat-Related Illnesses?
Heat-related illness can strike anyone. But chronic alcoholics, the elderly, the young, the obese, and individuals whose immune systems may be compromised are at greater risk, as are individuals taking certain drugs, such as antihistamines, antipsychotic medications, and cocaine. High humidity also increases the risk of heat illness because it interferes with the evaporation of sweat, your body’s way of cooling itself.
Heat exhaustion, heat cramps, and heat stroke all occur when your body cannot cool itself adequately. But each is slightly different.
Heat exhaustion occurs when the body loses large amounts of water and salt through excessive sweating, particularly through hard physical labor or exercise. This loss of essential fluids can disturb circulation and interfere with brain function. Individuals who have heart, lung, or kidney problems or are on low-sodium diets may be particularly susceptible to heat exhaustion.
As in heat exhaustion, heat cramps can strike when the body loses excessive amounts of fluids and salt. This deficiency, accompanied by the loss of other essential nutrients such as potassium and magnesium, typically occurs during heavy exertion.
Heat stroke, the most serious of the heat-related illnesses, occurs when the body suffers from long, intense exposure to heat and loses its ability to cool itself. In prolonged, extreme heat, the part of the brain that normally regulates body temperature malfunctions. This decreases the body’s ability to sweat and, therefore, cool down. Those who have certain medical conditions that decrease the body’s ability to sweat — such as scleroderma or cystic fibrosis — may be at greater risk of developing heat stroke.
Measuring water flow is an important aspect for canyoners. A marked increase or decrease in flow can create a hazard or make safe passage through previously navigated rapids more difficult or impossible. Flow rate is measured in either Cubic Meters per Second (m³/s) or Cubic Feet per Second (cfs) depending on the country. By knowing the measurements of the river at a given spot, it is possible to calculate its flow volume at any point between confluences.
Depth x Width x Speed = Volume
The orientation of the canyon is determined relative to the flow of the water, not the viewer’s perspective. The sides of a canyon are named either Canyon Left or Canyon Right. You also have both Upstream and Downstream. There will be sometimes an exception to this rule where the river can flow in reverse depending on tidal flow. These types of exceptions are usually only found in canyons connected to oceans.
U Upstream – The direction from which water is flowing from.
D Downstream – The direction in which (or to which) water is flowing.
CL Canyon Left – The left side of the channel when looking downstream.
CR Canyon Right – The right side of the channel when looking downstream.
Note: It’s always important thing to remember is that “canyon left” and “canyon right” are always from the direction of flow.
A Floating Anchor is an advanced technique similar to a guided rappel. There are a couple of different methods of making a Floating Anchor providing that the force and flow of the water will allow us to use it. When using a Floating Anchor it is important to travel along the rappel line as quickly as possible by not introducing a vector and pulling the anchor away from the waterfall lip.
To make a floating anchor, attach a rope to the either to the top handle of a rope bag / back pack with the mouth of the bag open. Throw the bag to the waterfall lip, or let the bag be dragged to he waterfall lip. Once at the lip, allow the bag to be constantly be filled with the water from the waterfall. It is important to allow approximately 1 metre of extra length over the waterfall lip before tying off the rappel line. This extra length will help compensate when someone is on the rappel line.
The second method is to use a double floating anchor. A double floating anchor involves using a smaller bag to throw over the waterfall lip to help drag a larger bag that will be used for the anchor. This technique is quite useful when you have a wide distance to play with and the larger bag cannot be thrown efficiently. The same principle applies as a standard Floating Anchor.
A Tow Anchor is a helpful tool to help you out of a hazard by floating a bag down the flow to help pull you out. The best way to do this is to attach a bag to your harness using a Munter Mule. Do not directly tie into the rope using a Clove Hitch or Figure 8. In case there is problems you can release the Munter Mule and launch the rope bag into the flow which can then help pull you out.
Hammer Hoodoo Canyon is a recently explored canyon in Sedona, AZ. The canyon is dry and offers great views throughout the day. Overall, a great short day with roughly 9-11 rappels depending on how you approach the challenges. Check out the beta using the link below or directly at OnRopeCanyoneering.com
Ran a series of workshops over a 3 day period ranging from very basic core canyoneering concepts to advanced rigging and rescue material. Participants had a TON of information thrown at them in a short period and it was amazing to see how much was retained over the course of the classes. Pics are from a few of the days where topics ranged from Intro to canyoneering, Anchors and Rigging, Core rope work, Rigging and Rescue, Leadership and Group Dynamics, In Canyon Training, along with some after hours Discussions and Demos. Those interested in learning check out the calendar of events for any scheduled training sessions or feel free to get in contact at anytime to set up a course that fits your current needs. We have classes for those who have never touched a rope all the way to advanced canyon rescue and will cater a perfect fit for your requirements.
This counterweight system allows the victim to be raised when lowering is impossible.
This system is possible when the rope is not attached at the bottom.
1. The rescuer installs a progress capture pulley and tensions the system with his body weight
2. He engages the counterbalance system by pulling on the victim's side of the rope
3. He installs the ASCENSION handled rope clamp and the CROLL ventral rope clamp to ascend with the victim